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英语语法精讲:形似义异的句子

发布时间:2019-06-09 13:57 类别:英语句子

  英语句子千变万化,但都有一定的句法。有些句子,外表相似,但含义不同。有时两个句子中,只有一个字不同,甚至只有一个标点不同,句子的意思也跟着不同。有趣的是,句子越浅白,问题可能越多。

  现在看看这两个句子:

  (1) Ken said he had been fairly well treated.

  (2) Ken said he had been fairly treated.

  这两个句子都有副词“fairly”,但是在(1)里,它是个程度副词(adverb of degree),意思是“相当地”。在(2)里,它是个状态副词(adverb of manner),意思是“公平地”。第一个“fairly”修饰另一个副词“well”;第二个“fairly”修饰动词“treated”。

  再看看这两个句子:

  (3) Jimmy didn't buy the coat because it did not fit him.

  (4) Jimmy didn't buy the coat because it did not suit him.

  (3)和(4)的唯一差别是在动词“fit”和“suit”。前者指“尺寸”;后者指“款式”。区区一字之别,意思大不相同。

  最后,比较下面四组句子,看看它们又如何“形似义异”:

  (5) Samuel, the manager, told me that he was leaving the job.

  (6) Samuel, the manager, told me to leave the job.

  这两句主要的不同根源在“told”这动词的内涵。(5)里的间接引语(indirect speech)是个陈述句(declarative sentence)。(6)里的间接引语是个祈使句(imperative sentence)。这两句的直接引语(direct speech)如下:

  - “I am leaving the job,” said Samuel, the manager.

  - “Leave the job !” said Samuel, the manager.

  (7) The tourist spent two days in Singapore.

  (8) The tourist spent two days on Singapore.

  这两句的差别仅在介词“in”和“on”。

  (7)里的意思就是“旅客在新加坡观光两天”。(8)里的目的不是“观光”,而是“研究”。(7)里指的是“spending time sightseeing Singapore”。 (8)里指的是“spending time studying about Singapore”.

  (9) I had a view of the London Bridge.

  (10) I had a view from the London Bridge.

  这两句的差别也在两个不同的介词:“of” 和“from”。

  在(9)里,伦敦大桥是说话人“观看的目标”。在(10)里,伦敦大桥是说话人的“立足点”,去看别的东西。

  (11) John helped her do the office work.

  (12) John helped her to do the office work.

  (11)表示“约翰直接和全面的帮助她,从而减轻她的负担”。(12)并不指直接投入有关的工作,而是以其他方式协助她,让她完成自己的任务。